30 Minutes 20 Questions
1. Child’s World, a chain of toy stores, has relied on a “supermarket
concept” of computerized inventory control and customer self-service to
eliminate the category of sales clerks from its force of employees. It now plans
to employ the same concept in selling children’s clothes. The plan of Child’s
World assumes that
(A) supermarkets will not also be selling children’s clothes in the same
(B) personal service by sales personnel is not required for selling children’s
(C) the same kind of computers will be used in inventory control for both
clothes and toys at Child’s World
(D) a self-service plan cannot be employed without computerized inventory
(E) sales clerks are the only employees of Child’s World who could be assigned
tasks related to inventory control
2. Continuous indoor fluorescent light benefits the health of hamsters
with inherited heart disease. A group of them exposed to continuous fluorescent
light survived twenty-five percent longer than a similar group exposed instead
to equal periods of indoor fluorescent light and of darkness. The method of the
research described above is most likely to be applicable in addressing which of
the following questions?
(A) Can industrial workers who need to see their work do so better by
sunlight or by fluorescent light?
(B) Can hospital lighting be improved to promote the recovery of patients?
(C) How do deep-sea fish survive in total darkness?
(D) What are the inherited illnesses to which hamsters are subject?
(E) Are there plants that require specific periods of darkness in order to
3. Millions of identical copies of a plant can be produced using new
tissue-culture and cloning techniques. If plant propagation by such methods in
laboratories proves economical, each of the following, if true, represents a
benefit of the new techniques to farmers EXCEPT:
(A) The techniques allow the development of superior strains to take place
more rapidly, requiring fewer generations of plants grown to maturity.
(B) It is less difficult to care for plants that will grow at rates that do not
(C) Plant diseases and pests, once they take hold, spread more rapidly among
genetically uniform plants than among those with genetic variations.
(D) Mechanical harvesting of crops is less difficult if plants are more uniform
(E) Special genetic traits can more easily be introduced into plant strains with
the use of the new techniques.
4. Which of the following best completes the passage below? Sales
campaigns aimed at the faltering personal computer market have strongly
emphasized ease of use, called user-friendliness. This emphasis is oddly
premature and irrelevant in the eyes of most potential buyers, who are trying to
address the logically prior issue of whether______
(A) user-friendliness also implies that owners can service their own
(B) personal computers cost more the more user-friendly they are
(C) currently available models are user-friendly enough to suit them
(D) the people promoting personal computers use them in their own homes
(E) they have enough sensible uses for a personal computer to justify the
expense of buying one
5. A weapons-smuggling incident recently took place in country Y. We all
know that Y is a closed society. So Y’s government must have known about the
weapons. Which of the following is an assumption that would make the conclusion
above logically correct?
(A) If a government knows about a particular weapons-smuggling incident, it
must have intended to use the weapons for its own purposes.
(B) If a government claims that it knew nothing about a particular
weapons-smuggling incident, it must have known everything about it.
(C) If a government does not permit weapons to enter a country, it is a closed
(D) If a country is a closed society, its government has a large contingent of
armed guards patrolling its borders.
(E) If a country is a closed society, its government has knowledge about
everything that occurs in the country.
6. Banning cigarette advertisements in the mass media will not reduce the
number of young people who smoke. They know that cigarettes exist and they know
how to get them. They do not need the advertisements to supply that information.
The above argument would be most weakened if which of the following were true?
(A) Seeing or hearing an advertisement for a product tends to increase
people’s desire for that product.
(B) Banning cigarette advertisements in the mass media will cause an increase in
advertisements in places where cigarettes are sold.
(C) Advertisements in the mass media have been an exceedingly large part of the
expenditures of the tobacco companies.
(D) Those who oppose cigarette use have advertised against it in the mass media
ever since cigarettes were found to be harmful.
(E) Older people tend to be less influenced by mass-media advertisements than
younger people tend to be.
7. People tend to estimate the likelihood of an event’s occurrence
according to its salience; that is, according to how strongly and how often it
comes to their attention. By placement and headlines, newspapers emphasize
stories about local crime over stories about crime elsewhere and about many
other major events. It can be concluded on the basis of the statements above
that, if they are true, which of the following is most probably also true?
(A) The language used in newspaper headlines about local crime is
inflammatory and fails to respect the rights of suspects.
(B) The coverage of international events in newspapers is neglected in favor of
the coverage of local events.
(C) Readers of local news in newspapers tend to overestimate the amount of crime
in their own localities relative to the amount of crime in other places.
(D) None of the events concerning other people that are reported in newspapers
is so salient in people’s minds as their own personal experiences.
(E) The press is the news medium that focuses people’s attention most strongly
on local crimes.
8. By analyzing the garbage of a large number of average-sized households,
a group of modern urban anthropologists has found that a household discards less
food the more standardized—made up of canned and prepackaged foods—its diet is.
The more standardized a household’s diet is, however, the greater the quantities
of fresh produce the household throws away. Which of the following can be
properly inferred from the passage?
(A) An increasing number of households rely on a highly standardized diet.
(B) The less standardized a household’s diet is, the more nonfood waste the
(C) The less standardized a household’s diet is, the smaller is the proportion
of fresh produce in the household’s food waste.
(D) The less standardized a household’s diet is, the more canned and prepackaged
foods the household discards as waste.
(E) The more fresh produce a household buys, the more fresh produce it throws
Questions 9-10 are based on the following.
In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men;
these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by
women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated
professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these
professions will also drop.
9. The argument above is based on
(A) another argument that contains circular reasoning
(B) an attempt to refute a generalization by means of an exceptional case
(C) an analogy between the past and the future
(D) an appeal to popular beliefs and values
(E) an attack on the character of the opposition
10. Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the
evidence used to refute the conclusion above?
(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively
high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and
teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
(B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as
airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase.
(C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in
recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.
(D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will
be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.
(E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are
governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were
pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.
11. An electric-power company gained greater profits and provided
electricity to consumers at lower rates per unit of electricity by building
larger- apacity more efficient plants and by stimulating greater use of
electricity within its area. To continue these financial trends, the company
planned to replace an old plant by a plant with triple the capacity of its
largest plant. The company’s plan as described above assumed each of the
(A) Demand for electricity within the company’s area of service would
increase in the future.
(B) Expenses would not rise beyond the level that could be compensated for by
efficiency or volume of operation, or both.
(C) The planned plant would be sufficiently reliable in service to contribute a
net financial benefit to the company as a whole.
(D) Safety measures to be instituted for the new plant would be the same as
those for the plant it would replace.
(E) The tripling of capacity would not result in insuperable technological
obstacles to efficiency.
Questions 12-13 are based on the following.
Meteorologists say that if only they could design an accurate mathematical
model of the atmosphere with all its complexities, they could forecast the
weather with real precision. But this is an idle boast, immune to any
evaluation, for any inadequate weather forecast would obviously be blamed on
imperfections in the model.
12. Which of the following, if true, could best be used as a basis for
arguing against the author’s position that the meteorologists’ claim cannot be
(A) Certain unusual configurations of data can serve as the basis for
precise weather forecasts even though the exact causal mechanisms are not
(B) Most significant gains in the accuracy of the relevant mathematical models
are accompanied by clear gains in the precision of weather forecasts.
(C) Mathematical models of the meteorological aftermath of such catastrophic
events as volcanic eruptions are beginning to be constructed.
(D) Modern weather forecasts for as much as a full day ahead are broadly correct
about 80 percent of the time.
(E) Meteorologists readily concede that the accurate mathematical model they are
talking about is not now in their power to construct.
13. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on
the meteorologists’ boast, aside from the doubt expressed in the passage above?
(A) The amount of energy that the Earth receives from the Sun is monitored
closely and is known not to be constant.
(B) Volcanic eruptions, the combustion of fossil fuels, and several other
processes that also cannot be quantified with any accuracy are known to have a
and continuing impact on the constitution of the atmosphere.
(C) As current models of the atmosphere are improved, even small increments in
complexity will mean large increases in the number of computers required for the
representation of the models.
(D) Frequent and accurate data about the atmosphere collected at a large number
of points both on and above the ground are a prerequisite for the construction
a good model of the atmosphere.
(E) With existing models of the atmosphere, large scale weather patterns can be
predicted with greater accuracy than can relatively local weather patterns.
14. Of the countries that were the world’s twenty largest exporters in
1953, four had the same share of total world exports in 1984 as in 1953. Theses
countries can therefore serve as models for those countries that wish to keep
their share of the global export trade stable over the years. Which of the
following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the suitability of those
four countries as models in the sense described?
(A) Many countries wish to increase their share of world export trade, not
just keep it stable.
(B) Many countries are less concerned with exports alone than with he balance
between exports and imports.
(C) With respect to the mix of products each exports, the four countries are
very different from each other.
(D) Of the four countries, two had a much larger, and two had a much smaller,
share of total world exports in 1970 than in 1984.
(E) The exports of the four countries range from 15 percent to 75 percent of the
total national output.
Questions 15-16 are based on the following.
In the United States, the Postal Service has a monopoly on first-class mail,
but much of what is sent first class could be transmitted electronically.
Electronic transmittal operators argue that if the Postal Service were to offer
electronic transmission, it would have an unfair advantage, since its electronic
transmission service could be subsidized from the profits of the monopoly.
15. Which of the following, if each is true, would allay the electronic
transmittal operators’ fears of unfair competition?
(A) If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it could
not make a profit on first-class mail.
(B) If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it would have a
monopoly on that kind of service.
(C) Much of the material that is now sent by first-class mail could be delivered
much faster by special package couriers, but is not sent that way because of
(D) There is no economy of scale in electronic transmission—that is, the cost
per transaction does not go down as more pieces of information are transmitted.
(E) Electronic transmission will never be cost-effective for material not sent
by first-class mail such as newspapers and bulk mail.
16. Which of the following questions can be answered on the basis of the
information in the passage above?
(A) Is the Postal Service as efficient as privately owned electric
(B) If private operators were allowed to operate first-class mail services,
would they choose to do so?
(C) Do the electronic transmittal operators believe that the Postal Service
makes a profit on first-class mail?
(D) Is the Postal Service prohibited from offering electronic transmission
(E) Is the Postal Service expected to have a monopoly on electronic
17. Lists of hospitals have been compiled showing which hospitals have
patient death rates exceeding the national average. The data have been adjusted
to allow for differences in the ages of patients. Each of the following, if
true, provides a good logical ground for hospitals to object to interpreting
rank on these lists as one of the indices of the quality of hospital care
(A) Rank order might indicate insignificant differences, rather than large
differences, in numbers of patient deaths.
(B) Hospitals that keep patients longer are likely to have higher death rates
than those that discharge patients earlier but do not record deaths of patients
(C) Patients who are very old on admission to a hospital are less likely than
younger patients to survive the same types of illnesses or surgical procedures.
(D) Some hospitals serve a larger proportion of low-income patients, who tend to
be more seriously ill when admitted to a hospital.
(E) For-profit hospitals sometimes do not provide intensive-care units and other
expensive services for very sick patients but refer or transfer such patients to
18. Teresa: Manned spaceflight does not have a future, since it cannot
compete economically with other means of accomplishing the objectives of
spaceflight. Edward: No mode of human transportation has a better record of
reliability: two accidents in twenty-five years. Thus manned spaceflight
definitely has a positive future. Which of the following is the best logical
evaluation of Edward’s argument as a response to Teresa’s argument?
(A) It cites evidence that, if true, tends to disprove the evidence cited by
Teresa in drawing her conclusion.
(B) It indicates a logical gap in the support that Teresa offers for her
(C) It raises a consideration that outweighs the argument Teresa makes.
(D) It does not meet Teresa’s point because it assumes that there is no serious
impediment to transporting people into space, but this was the issue raised by
(E) It fails to respond to Teresa’s argument because it does not address the
fundamental issue of whether space activities should have priority over other
the national budget.
19. Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White
Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for
westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. Researchers have
hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an
interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an
environmental scarcity of salt. Which of the following statements about
present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the
(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout
their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a
serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly
decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history,
have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those
people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have
20. The following proposal to amend the bylaws of an organization was
circulated to its members for comment. When more than one nominee is to be named
for an office, prospective nominees must consent to nomination and before giving
such consent must be told who the other nominees will be. Which of the following
comments concerning the logic of the proposal is accurate if it cannot be known
who the actual nominees are until prospective nominees have given their consent
to be nominated?
(A) The proposal would make it possible for each of several nominees for an
office to be aware of who all of the other nominees are.
(B) The proposal would widen the choice available to those choosing among the
(C) If there are several prospective nominees, the proposal would deny the last
nominee equal treatment with the first.
(D) The proposal would enable a prospective nominee to withdraw from competition
with a specific person without making that withdrawal known.
(E) If there is more than one prospective nominee, the proposal would make it
impossible for anyone to become a nominee.
30 Minutes 20 Questions
1. After the national speed limit of 55 miles per hour was imposed in
1974, the number of deaths per mile driven on a highway fell abruptly as a
result. Since then, however, the average speed of vehicles on highways has
risen, but the number of deaths per mile driven on a highway has continued to
fall. Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the
(A) The speed limit alone is probably not responsible for the continued
reduction in highway deaths in the years after 1974.
(B) People have been driving less since 1974.
(C) Driver-education courses have been more effective since 1974 in teaching
drivers to drive safely.
(D) In recent years highway patrols have been less effective in catching drivers
(E) The change in the speed limit cannot be responsible for the abrupt decline
in highway deaths in 1974.
2. Neighboring landholders: Air pollution from the giant aluminum refinery
that has been built next to our land is killing our plants. Company
spokesperson: The refinery is not to blame, since our study shows that the
damage is due to insects and fungi. Which of the following, if true, most
seriously weakens the conclusion drawn by the company spokesperson?
(A) The study did not measure the quantity of pollutants emitted into the
surrounding air by the aluminum refinery.
(B) The neighboring landholders have made no change in the way they take care of
(C) Air pollution from the refinery has changed the chemical balance in the
plants’ environment, allowing the harmful insects and fungi to thrive.
(D) Pollutants that are invisible and odorless are emitted into the surrounding
air by the refinery.
(E) The various species of insects and fungi mentioned in the study have been
occasionally found in the locality during the past hundred years.
3. Sales taxes tend to be regressive, affecting poor people more severely
than wealthy people. When all purchases of consumer goods are taxed at a fixed
percentage of the purchase price, poor people pay a larger proportion of their
income in sales taxes than wealthy people do. It can be correctly inferred on
the basis of the statements above that which of the following is true?
(A) Poor people constitute a larger proportion of the taxpaying population
than wealthy people do.
(B) Poor people spend a larger proportion of their income on purchases of
consumer goods than wealthy people do.
(C) Wealthy people pay, on average, a larger amount of sales taxes than poor
(D) The total amount spent by all poor people on purchases of consumer goods
exceeds the total amount spent by all wealthy people on consumer goods.
(E) The average purchase price of consumer goods bought by wealthy people is
higher than that of consumer goods bought by poor people.
4. Reviewing historical data, medical researchers in California found that
counties with the largest number of television sets per capita have had the
lowest incidence of a serious brain disease, mosquito-borne encephalitis. The
researchers have concluded that people in these counties stay indoors more and
thus avoid exposure to the disease. The researchers’ conclusion would be most
strengthened if which of the following were true?
(A) Programs designed to control the size of disease-bearing mosquito
populations have not affected the incidence of mosquito borne encephalitis.
(B) The occupations of county residents affect their risk of exposure to
mosquito-borne encephalitis more than does television-watching.
(C) The incidence of mosquito-borne encephalitis in counties with the largest
number of television sets per capita is likely to decrease even further.
(D) The more time people in a county spend outdoors, the greater their awareness
of the dangers of mosquito-borne encephalitis.
(E) The more television sets there are per capita in a county, the more time the
average county resident spends watching television.
5. The city’s public transportation system should be removed from the
jurisdiction of the municipal government, which finds it politically impossible
either to raise fares or to institute cost-saving reductions in service. If
public transportation were handled by a private firm, profits would be
vigorously pursued, thereby eliminating the necessity for covering operating
costs with government funds. The statements above best support the conclusion
(A) the private firms that would handle public transportation would have
experience in the transportation industry
(B) political considerations would not prevent private firms from ensuring that
revenues cover operating costs
(C) private firms would receive government funding if it were needed to cover
(D) the public would approve the cost-cutting actions taken by the private firm
(E) the municipal government would not be resigned to accumulating merely enough
income to cover costs
6. To entice customers away from competitors, Red Label supermarkets have
begun offering discounts on home appliances to customers who spend $50 or more
on any shopping trip to Red Label. Red Label executives claim that the discount
program has been a huge success, since cash register receipts of $50 or more are
up thirty percent since the beginning of the program. Which of the following, if
true, most seriously weakens the claim of the Red Label executives?
(A) Most people who switched to Red Label after the program began spend more
than $50 each time they shop at Red Label.
(B) Most people whose average grocery bill is less than $50 would not be
persuaded to spend more by any discount program.
(C) Most people who received discounts on home appliances through Red Label’s
program will shop at Red Label after the program ends.
(D) Since the beginning of the discount program, most of the people who spend
$50 or more at Red Label are people who have never before shopped there and
whose average grocery bill has always been higher than $50.
(E) Almost all of the people who have begun spending $50 or more at Red Label
since the discount program began are longtime customers who have increased the
average amount of their shopping bills by making fewer trips.
7. Throughout the 1950’s, there were increases in the numbers of dead
birds found in agricultural areas after pesticide sprayings. Pesticide
manufacturers claimed that the publicity given to bird deaths stimulated
volunteers to look for dead birds, and that the increase in numbers reported was
attributable to the increase in the number of people looking. Which of the
following statements, if true, would help to refute the claim of the pesticide
(A) The publicity given to bird deaths was largely regional and never
reached national proportions.
(B) Pesticide sprayings were timed to coincide with various phases of the life
cycles of the insects they destroyed.
(C) No provision was made to ensure that a dead bird would not be reported by
more than one observer.
(D) Initial increases in bird deaths had been noticed by agricultural workers
long before any publicity had been given to the matter.
(E) Dead birds of the same species as those found in agricultural areas had been
found along coastal areas where no farming took place.
8. Teenagers are often priced out of the labor market by the
government-mandated minimum-wage level because employers cannot afford to pay
that much for extra help. Therefore, if Congress institutes a sub minimum wage,
a new lower legal wage for teenagers, the teenage unemployment rate, which has
been rising since 1960, will no longer increase. Which of the following, if
true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) Since 1960 the teenage unemployment rate has risen when the minimum wage
(B) Since 1960 the teenage unemployment rate has risen even when the minimum
wage remained constant.
(C) Employers often hire extra help during holiday and warm weather seasons.
(D) The teenage unemployment rate rose more quickly in the 1970’s than it did in
(E) The teenage unemployment rate has occasionally declined in the years since
9. Which of the following best completes the passage below? The computer
industry’s estimate that it loses millions of dollars when users illegally copy
programs without paying for them is greatly exaggerated. Most of the illegal
copying is done by people with no serious interest in the programs. Thus, the
loss to the industry is much smaller than estimated because______
(A) many users who illegally copy programs never find any use for them
(B) most of the illegally copied programs would not be purchased even if
purchasing them were the only way to obtain them
(C) even if the computer industry received all the revenue it claims to be
losing, it would still be experiencing financial difficulties
(D) the total market value of all illegal copies is low in comparison to the
total revenue of the computer industry
(E) the number of programs that are frequently copied illegally is low in
comparison to the number of programs available for sale
10. This year the New Hampshire Division of Company X set a new record for
annual sales by that division. This record is especially surprising since the
New Hampshire Division has the smallest potential market and the lowest sales of
any of Company X’s divisions.
Which of the following identifies a flaw in the logical coherence of the
(A) If overall sales for Company X were sharply reduced, the New Hampshire
Division’s new sales record is irrelevant to the company’s prosperity.
(B) Since the division is competing against its own record, the comparison of
its sales record with that of other divisions is irrelevant.
(C) If this is the first year that the New Hampshire Division has been last in
sales among Company X’s divisions, the new record is not surprising at all.
(D) If overall sales for Company X were greater than usual, it is not surprising
that the New Hampshire Division was last in sales.
(E) Since the New Hampshire Division has the smallest potential market, it is
not surprising that it had the lowest sales.
11. Statement of a United States copper mining company: Import quotas
should be imposed on the less expensive copper mined outside the country to
maintain the price of copper in this country; otherwise, our companies will not
be able to stay in business. Response of a United States copper wire
manufacturer: United States wire and cable manufacturers purchase about 70
percent of the copper mined in the United States. If the copper prices we pay
are not at the international level, our sales will drop, and then the demand for
United States copper will go down. If the factual information presented by both
companies is accurate, the best assessment of the logical relationship between
the two arguments is that the wire manufacturer’s argument
(A) is self-serving and irrelevant to the proposal of the mining company
(B) is circular, presupposing what it seeks to prove about the proposal of the
(C) shows that the proposal of the mining company would have a negative effect
on the mining company’s own business
(D) fails to give a reason why the proposal of the mining company should not be
put into effect to alleviate the concern of the mining company for staying in
(E) establishes that even the mining company’s business will prosper if the
mining company’s proposal is rejected
12. Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are
often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of
Z. Which of the following further observations would best support the new
(A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z.
(B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z.
(C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z.
(D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X.
(E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y.
13. Mr. Primm: If hospitals were private enterprises, dependent on profits
for their survival, there would be no teaching hospitals, because of the
intrinsically high cost of running such hospitals. Ms. Nakai: I disagree. The
medical challenges provided by teaching hospitals attract the very best
physicians. This, in turn, enables those hospitals to concentrate on nonroutine
cases. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen Ms. Nakai’s
attempt to refute Mr. Primm’s claim?
(A) Doctors at teaching hospitals command high salaries.
(B) Sophisticated, nonroutine medical care commands a high price.
(C) Existing teaching hospitals derive some revenue from public subsidies.
(D) The patient mortality rate at teaching hospitals is high.
(E) The modern trend among physicians is to become highly specialized.
14. A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found
that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were
not wearingseat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by
wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their
risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident. The conclusion
above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?
(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20
percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in
Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat
passengers were very severely injured.
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were
not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve
any serious injury.
15. Six months or so after getting a video recorder, many early buyers
apparently lost interest in obtaining videos to watch on it. The trade of
businesses selling and renting videos is still buoyant, because the number of
homes with video recorders is still growing. But clearly, once the market for
video recorders is saturated, businesses distributing videos face hard times.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion
(A) The market for video recorders would not be considered saturated until
there was one in 80 percent of homes.
(B) Among the items handled by video distributors are many films specifically
produced as video features.
(C) Few of the early buyers of video recorders raised any complaints about
performance aspects of the new product.
(D) The early buyers of a novel product are always people who are quick to
acquire novelties, but also often as quick to tire of them.
(E) In a shrinking market, competition always intensifies and marginal
16. Advertiser: The revenue that newspapers and magazines earn by
publishing advertisements allows publishers to keep the prices per copy of their
publications much lower than would otherwise be possible. Therefore, consumers
benefit economically from advertising. Consumer: But who pays for the
advertising that pays for low-priced newspapers and magazines? We consumers do,
because advertisers pass along advertising costs to us through the higher prices
they charge for their products. Which of the following best describes how the
consumer counters the advertiser’s argument?
(A) By alleging something that, if true, would weaken the plausibility of
the advertiser’s conclusion
(B) By questioning the truth of the purportedly factual statement on which the
advertiser’s conclusion is based
(C) By offering an interpretation of the advertiser’s opening statement that, if
accurate, shows that there is an implicit contradiction in it
(D) By pointing out that the advertiser’s point of view is biased
(E) By arguing that the advertiser too narrowly restricts the discussion to the
effects of advertising that are economic
17. Mr. Lawson: We should adopt a national family policy that includes
legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing
government-sponsored day care. Such laws would decrease the stress levels of
employees who have responsibility for small children. Thus, such laws would lead
to happier, better-adjusted families. Which of the following, if true, would
most strengthen the conclusion above?
(A) An employee’s high stress level can be a cause of unhappiness and poor
adjustment for his or her family.
(B) People who have responsibility for small children and who work outside the
home have higher stress levels than those who do not.(C) The goal of a national
family policy is to lower the stress levels of parents.
(D) Any national family policy that is adopted would include legislation
requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing
(E) Most children who have been cared for in daycare centers are happy and well
18. Lark Manufacturing Company initiated a voluntary Quality Circles
program for machine operators. Independent surveys of employee attitudes
indicated that the machine operators participating in the program were less
satisfied with their work situations after two years of the program’s existence
than they were at the program’s start. Obviously, any workers who participate in
a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their
jobs. Each of the following, if true, would weaken the conclusion drawn above
(A) The second survey occurred during a period of recession when rumors of
cutbacks and layoffs at Lark Manufacturing were plentiful.
(B) The surveys also showed that those Lark machine operators who neither
participated in Quality Circles nor knew anyone who did so reported the same
of lessened satisfaction with their work situations as did the Lark machine
operators who participated in Quality Circles.
(C) While participating in Quality Circles at Lark Manufacturing, machine
operators exhibited two of the primary indicators of improved job satisfaction:
productivity and decreased absenteeism.
(D) Several workers at Lark Manufacturing who had participated in Quality
Circles while employed at other companies reported that, while participating in
Circles in their previous companies, their work satisfaction had increased.
(E) The machine operators who participated in Quality Circles reported that,
when the program started, they felt that participation might improve their work
Questions 19-20 are based on the following.
Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for Nanb hepatitis.
Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of
all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying
NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply
Nanb- ontaminated blood.
19. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases,
carry other infections for which reliable screening tests are routinely
(B) Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases,
develop the disease themselves at any point.
(C) The estimate of the number of donors who would be disqualified by tests for
NANB hepatitis is an underestimate.
(D) The incidence of NANB hepatitis is lower among the potential blood donors
than it is in the population at large.
(E) The donors who will still supply NANB-contaminated blood will donate blood
at the average frequency for all donors.
20. Which of the following inferences about the consequences of
instituting the new tests is best supported by the passage above?
(A) The incidence of new cases of NANB hepatitis is likely to go up by 10
(B) Donations made by patients specifically for their own use are likely to
become less frequent.
(C) The demand for blood from blood banks is likely to fluctuate more strongly.
(D) The blood supplies available from blood banks are likely to go down.
(E) The number of prospective first-time donors is likely to go up by 5 percent.
Time 30 minutes 20 Questions
1. Mr. Janeck: I don’t believe Stevenson will win the election for
governor. Few voters are willing to elect a businessman with no political
experience to such a responsible public office. Ms. Siuzdak: You’re wrong. The
experience of running a major corporation is a valuable preparation for the task
of running a state government. M. Siuzdak’s response shows that she has
interpreted Mr. Janeck’s remark to imply which of the following?
(A) Mr. Janeck considers Stevenson unqualified for the office of governor.
(B) No candidate without political experience has ever been elected
governor of a state.
(C) Mr. Janeck believes that political leadership and business leadership
are closely analogous.
(D) A career spent in the pursuit of profit can be an impediment to one’s
ability to run a state government fairly.
(E) Voters generally overestimate the value of political experience when
selecting a candidate.
2. Which of the following best completes the passage below? One tax-reform
proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax,
which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of
the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of
taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those
better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions,
exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer,
who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a
level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______
(A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax
proposal now being considered by Congress
(B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would
substantially increase actual government revenues
(C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution
of a flat-tax system in this country
(D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory
(E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer
than any progressive tax system could be
3. As part of our program to halt the influx of illegal immigrants, the
administration is proposing the creation of a national identity card. The card
would be available only to U.S. citizens and to registered aliens, and all
persons would be required to produce the card before they could be given a job.
Of course, such a system holds the potential, however slight, for the abuse of
civil liberties. Therefore, all personal information gathered through this
system would be held strictly confidential, to be released only by authorized
personnel under appropriate circumstances. Those who are in compliance with U.S.
laws would have nothing to fear from the identity card system. In evaluating the
above proposal, a person concerned about the misuse of confidential information
would be most interested in having the author clarify the meaning of which of
the following phrases?
(A) “all persons” (line 5)
(B) “however slight” (line 7)
(C) “civil liberties” (line 8)
(D) “appropriate circumstances” (line 11)
(E) “U.S. laws” (line 2)
4. At one time, European and Japanese companies tried to imitate their
American rivals. Today, American appliance manufacturers import European
scientists to lead their research staffs; American automakers design cars that
mimic the styling of German, Italian, and French imports; and American
electronics firms boast in their advertising of “Japanese-style” devotion to
quality and reliability. In the world of high technology, America has lost the
battle for international prestige. Each of the following statements, if true,
would help to support the claim above EXCEPT:
(A) An American camera company claims in its promotional literature to
produce cameras “as fine as the best Swiss imports.”
(B) An American maker of stereo components designs its products to
resemble those of a popular Japanese firm.
(C) An American manufacturer of video games uses a brand name chosen
because it sounds like a Japanese word.
(D) An American maker of televisions studies German-made televisions in
order to adopt German manufacturing techniques.
(E) An American maker of frozen foods advertises its dinners as “Real
European-style entrees prepared by fine French and Italian chefs.”
5. Johnson is on firm ground when he asserts that the early editors of
Dickinson’s poetry often distorted her intentions. Yet Johnson’s own, more
faithful, text is still guilty of its own forms of distortion. To standardize
Dickinson’s often indecipherable handwritten punctuation by the use of the dash
is to render permanent a casual mode of poetic phrasing that Dickinson surely
never expected to see in print. It implies that Dickinson chose the dash as her
typical mark of punctuation when, in fact, she apparently never made any
definitive choice at all. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s
(A) Although Johnson is right in criticizing Dickinson’s early editors for
their distortion of her work, his own text is guilty of equally serious
(B) Johnson’s use of the dash in his text of Dickinson’s poetry misleads
readers about the poet’s intentions.
(C) Because Dickinson never expected her poetry to be published,
virtually any attempt at editing it must run counter to her intentions.
(D) Although Johnson’s attempt to produce a more faithful text of
Dickinson’s poetry is well-meaning, his study of the material lacks sufficient
(E) Dickinson’s editors, including Johnson, have failed to deal
adequately with the problem of deciphering Dickinson’s handwritten manuscripts.
6. A law requiring companies to offer employees unpaid time off to care
for their children will harm the economic competitiveness of our nation’s
businesses. Companies must be free to set their own employment policies without
mandated parental-leave regulations. Which of the following, if true, would most
seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above?
(A) A parental-leave law will serve to strengthen the family as a social
institution in this country.
(B) Many businesses in this country already offer employees some form of
(C) Some of the countries with the most economically competitive
businesses have strong parental-leave regulations.
(D) Only companies with one hundred or more employees would be subject to
the proposed parental-leave law.
(E) In most polls, a majority of citizens say they favor passage of a
7. If A, then B. If B, then C. If C, then D. If all of the statements
above are true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) If D, then A.
(B) If not B, then not C.
(C) If not D, then not A.
(D) If D, then E.
(E) If not A, then not D.
8. Dear Applicant: Thank you for your application. Unfortunately, we are
unable to offer you a position in our local government office for the summer. As
you know, funding for summer jobs is limited, and it is impossible for us to
offer jobs to all those who want them. Consequently, we are forced to reject
many highly qualified applicants. Which of the following can be inferred from
(A) The number of applicants for summer jobs in the government office
exceeded the number of summer jobs available.
(B) The applicant who received the letter was considered highly
(C) Very little funding was available for summer jobs in the government
(D) The application of the person who received the letter was considered
carefully before being rejected.
(E) Most of those who applied for summer jobs were considered qualified
for the available positions.
9. Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of
cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives,
it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed. It is ironic that the
innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s carelessness, while the driver
often suffers only minor injuries or none at all. Which of the following is an
assumption underlying the reasoning in the passage above?
(A) In most fatal automobile accidents, the driver of a car in which an
occupant is killed is at fault.
(B) Drivers of automobiles are rarely killed in auto accidents.
(C) Most deaths in fatal automobile accidents are suffered by occupants
of cars rather than by pedestrians.
(D) Auto safety experts should increase their efforts to provide
protection for those in the passenger seats of automobiles.
(E) Automobile passengers sometimes play a contributing role in causing
Questions 10-11 are based on the following
As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in
the propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of
“disinformation” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In
a disinformation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local
journalists in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own.
Those who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet
disinformation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These
apologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the
apologists that the fire department finds water more effective.
10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the
(A) A circular definition of “disinformation”
(B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the
(C) An analogy between truth and water
(D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department
(E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western
11. The author’s main point is that
(A) although disinformation campaigns may be effective, they are
unacceptable on ethical grounds
(B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the
(C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns
generally give way to long-term losses
(D) Soviet disinformation campaigns have done little to damage America’s
standing in Europe
(E) disinformation campaigns do not effectively serve the political
interests of the United States
12. Are you still reading the other newspaper in town? Did you know that
the Daily Bugle is owned by an out-of-town business syndicate that couldn’t care
less about the people of Gotham City? Read the Daily Clarion, the only real
voice of the people of Gotham City! Which of the following most directly refutes
the argument raised in the advertisement above?
(A) Over half of the advertising revenues of the Daily Clarion come from
firms whose headquarters are located outside of Gotham City.
(B) The Daily Clarion usually devotes more of its pages to out-of-town
news than does the Daily Bugle.
(C) Nearly 40 percent of the readers of the Daily Clarion reside outside
the limits of Gotham City.
(D) The editor-in-chief and all the other members of the editorial staff
of the Daily Bugle have lived and worked in Gotham City for ten years or more.
(E) The Daily Bugle has been published in Gotham City for a longer time
than has the Daily Clarion.
Questions 13-14 are based on the following.
The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast. To correct this, the
United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many
years to come.
13. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Per capita resource consumption in the United States is at an all-time
(B) The United States wastes resources.
(C) The United States uses more resources than any other country.
(D) The United States imports most of the resources it uses.
(E) Curbing U.S. resource consumption will significantly retard world
14. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument
(A) New resource deposits are constantly being discovered.
(B) The United States consumes one-third of all resources used in the
(C) Other countries need economic development more than the United States
(D) Other countries have agreed to hold their resource consumption at
(E) The United States has been conserving resources for several years.
15. Alba: I don’t intend to vote for Senator Frank in the next election.
She is not a strong supporter of the war against crime. Tam: But Senator Frank
sponsored the latest anticrime law passed by the Senate. Alba: If Senator Frank
sponsored it, it can’t be a very strong anticrime law. Which of the following
identifies the most serious logical flaw in Alba’s reasoning?
(A) The facts she presents do not support her conclusion that Senator Frank
is soft on crime.
(B) She assumes without proof that crime is the most important issue in
the upcoming election.
(C) She argues in a circle, using an unsupported assertion to dismiss
(D) She attacks Senator Frank on personal grounds rather than on he merit
as a political leader.
(E) In deciding not to vote for Senator Frank, she fails to consider
issues other than crime.
16. Which of the following best completes the passage below? the most
serious flaw in television’s coverage of election campaigns is its tendency to
focus on the horse-race side of politics—that is, to concentrate on the question
“Who’s winning?” at the expense of substantive coverage of the issues and the
candidates’ positions on them. The endless interviews with campaign managers,
discussions of campaign strategies, and, especially, the obsession with opinion
polls have surrounded elections with the atmosphere of a football game or a
prizefight. To reform this situation, a first step might well be______
(A) a shortening of the length of election campaigns to a period of six
(B) a stringent limit on campaign spending
(C) a reduction in the television coverage of opinion polls during
(D) the publication and distribution of voter-education literature to
inform the public about each candidate’s position on the major issues
(E) a limit on the length and number of political advertisements
broadcast on television
17. With Proposition 13, if you bought your house 11 years ago for
$75,000, your property tax would be approximately $914 a year (1 percent of
$75,000 increased by 2 percent each year for 11 years); and if your neighbor
bought an identical house next door to you for $200,000 this year, his tax would
be $2,000 (1 percent of $200,000). Without Proposition 13, both you and your
neighbor would pay $6,000 a year in property taxes (3 percent of $200,000).
Which of the following is the conclusion for which the author most likely is
arguing in the passage above?
(A) Proposition 13 is unconstitutional because it imposes an unequal tax on
properties of equal value.
(B) If Proposition 13 is repealed, every homeowner is likely to
experience a substantial increase in property taxes.
(C) By preventing inflation from driving up property values, Proposition
13 has saved homeowners thousands of dollars in property taxes.
(D) If Proposition 13 is not repealed, identical properties will continue
to be taxed at different rates.
(E) Proposition 13 has benefited some homeowners more than others.
Questions 18-19 are based on the following.
At an enormous research cost, a leading chemical company has developed a
manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic. According to
the company, this new plastic can be used for, among other things, the hulls of
small sailboats. But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made
of? Surely the mania for high technology can scarcely go further than this.
18. The author’s opinion of the manufacturing process described in the
passage is based primarily on the fact that
(A) plastic is unlikely to be durable enough for high-quality sailboat hulls
(B) the research costs of developing the process outweigh any savings
possible from the use of the plastic
(C) a small sailboat is not normally regarded as a high-tech product
(D) hulls for small sailboats can be made from wood without converting it
(E) many other spheres of human activity are in far greater need of
19. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the
(A) The plastic produced by the process is considerably lighter, stronger,
and more watertight than wood.
(B) The wood used in producing the plastic is itself in increasingly
(C) The cost of the manufacturing process of the plastic increases the
cost of producing a sailboat hull by 10 to 15 percent.
(D) Much of the cost of the research that developed the new process will
be written off for tax purposes by the chemical company.
(E) The development of the new plastic is expected to help make the
chemical company an important supplier of boat-building materials.
20. A young man eager to become a master swordsman journeyed to the home
of the greatest teacher of swordsmanship in the kingdom. He asked the teacher,
“How quickly can you teach me to be a master swordsman?” The old teacher
replied, “It will take ten years.” Unsatisfied, the young man asked, “What if I
am willing to work night and day, every day of the year?” the teacher replied,
“In that case, it will take twenty years.” The teacher’s main point is that an
important quality of a master swordsman is
(B) willingness to work hard
(C) respect for one’s elders
Time 30 minutes 20 Questions
1. Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a
corporation to the stockholders. A number of charges have been raised against
me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation
for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of
law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the
American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until
proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of
growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped
enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation
are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his
desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
2. In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution
regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around
London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed
in other major cities. Each of the following is an assumption made in the
argument above EXCEPT:
(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely
by local industry.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the
quality of the air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to
those once suffered by London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an
actual increase in the number of species in the area.
3. Which of the following best completes the passage below? In opposing
government regulation of business, conservatives often appeal to the
Jeffersonian ideal of limited government, expressing the wish that government
would “get off the backs of the American people.” Yet, paradoxically, many of
these same conservatives address questions of private morality, such as those
dealing with sexual behavior, by calling for______
(A) a return to the restrictive sexual morality of the Victorian era
(B) a strengthening of the role of the family in setting moral norms for society
(C) a limitation on the amount of sexually provocative material appearing in
books, motives, and television shows
(D) greater freedom for individuals to choose their own way of handling sexual
(E) an increased governmental role in the regulation and control of private
Questions 4-5 are based on the following:
In an experiment, two different types of recorded music were played for
neonates in adjacent nurseries in a hospital. In nursery A, classical music was
played; in nursery B, rock music was played. After two weeks, it was found that
the babies in nursery A cried less, suffered fewer minor ailments, and gained
more weight than did the babies in nursery B.
4. In evaluating the validity of the conclusion suggested by the
experiment above, it would be most important to know which of the following?
(A) The musical preferences of the parents of the two groups of newborns
(B) Whether the newborns in both nurseries were equally healthy and happy at the
start of the experiment
(C) Whether loud rock music can damage the hearing of newborns
(D) What the average weight of the neonates was before and after the experiment
(E) Whether the music was played in the nurseries at all times or only at
5. Which of the following additional experimental data would support the
hypothesis that classical music is beneficial to the development of newborn?
(A) The neonates in a nursery where no music was played fared better than
those in nursery B.
(B) Nursery A contained 15 percent more premature babies than nursery B.
(C) The newborns in nursery A cried less, suffered fewer minor ailments, and
gained more weight than did newborns in a nursery with no music.
(D) The music played in nursery A was louder than that played in nursery B.
(E) The ratio of nurses to newborns in nursery B was 1 to 4; in nursery A, it
was 1 to 6.
6. The ancient city of Cephesa was not buried by an eruption of Mt. Amnos
in A.D. 310, as some believe. The eruption in the year 310 damaged the city, but
it did not destroy it. Cephesa survived for another century before it finally
met its destruction in another eruption around A.D. 415. Which of the following,
if true, would most strengthen the author’s claim that the city of Cephesa was
not buried by the eruption of Mt. Amnos in A.D. 310?
(A) The city of Cephesa is mentioned in a historical work known to have been
written in A.D. 400.
(B) Coins bearing the image of an emperor who lived around A.D. 410 have been
discovered in the ruins of Cephesa, which were preserved by the cinders and
ashes that buried the city.
(C) Geological evidence shows that the eruption of Mt. Amnos in A.D. 415
deposited a 10-foot-thick layer of lava on the city of Cephesa.
(D) Artworks from the city of Cephesa have been found in the ruins of another
city known to have been destroyed in A.D. 420.
(E) A historical work written in A.D. 430 refers to the eruption of Mt. Amnos in
7. June is taller than Kristin. Letty is taller than Maria. Maria is
shorter than Nancy. Kristin and Nancy are exactly the same height. If the
information above is true, which of the following must also be true?
(A) Letty is taller than Nancy.
(B) Letty is taller than June.
(C) Kristin is shorter than Letty.
(D) June is taller than Maria.
(E) Kristin is shorter than Maria.
8. Current farm policy is institutionalized penalization of consumers. It
increases food prices for middle- and low-income families and costs the taxpayer
billions of dollars a year. Which of the following statements, if true, would
provide support for the author’s claims above?
I. Farm subsidies amount to roughly $20 billion a year in federal payouts
and $12 billion more in higher food prices.
II. According to a study by the Department of Agriculture, each $1 of benefits
provided to farmers for ethanol production costs consumers and taxpayers $4.
III. The average full-time farmers have an average net worth of over $300,000.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I, II, and III
9. Reva: Using extraneous incentives to get teenagers to change their
attitude toward school and schoolwork won’t work. Take the program in West
Virginia, for instance, where they tried to reduce their dropout rate by
revoking the driving licenses of kids who left school. The program failed
miserably. Anne: It’s true that the West Virginia program failed, but many
schools have devised incentive programs that have been very successful in
improving attendance and reducing discipline problems. According to Anne, the
weak point in Reva’s claim is that it
(A) fails to consider the possibility that the majority of potential
dropouts in West Virginia do not have driving licenses
(B) doesn’t provide any exact figures for the dropout rate in West Virginia
before and during the program
(C) ignores a substantial body of evidence showing that parents and employers
have been using extrinsic incentives with positive results for years
(D) assumes that a positive incentive—a prize or a reward—will be no more
effective than a negative incentive, like the revoking of a driving license
(E) is based on a single example, the incentive program in West Virginia, which
may not be typical
10. In many surveys, American consumers have expressed a willingness to
spend up to 10 percent more for products that are ecologically sound. Encouraged
by such surveys, Bleach-O Corporation promoted a new laundry detergent, Bleach-O
Green, as safer for the environment. Bleach-O Green cost 5 percent more than
typical detergents. After one year, Bleach-O Green had failed to capture a
significant share of the detergent market and was withdrawn from sale. Which of
the following questions is LEAST likely to be relevant in determining the
reasons for the failure of Bleach-O Green?
(A) How effective as a detergent was Bleach-O Green?
(B) How many other detergents on the market were promoted as safe for the
(C) How much more did Bleach-O Green cost to manufacture than ordinary
(D) To what extent did consumers accept the validity of Bleach-O Green
advertised and promoted to consumers?
(E) How effectively was Bleach-O Green advertised and promoted to consumers?
11. The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls
disproportionately on the trucking industry. Trucks represent only about 10
percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks
amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair. Which of the
following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) The trucking industry has enjoyed record after-tax profits in three of
the past four years.
(B) Because of their weight, trucks cause over 50 percent of the damage
sustained by highway surfaces each year.
(C) Without an economically viable trucking industry, the cost of goods in the
United States would rise significantly.
(D) Road use taxes paid by trucking companies have decreased by 3 percent over
the past five years.
(E) Due to years of neglect, U.S. highways today are badly in need of major
repairs and rebuilding.
12. The upcoming presidential election in the West African republic of
Ganelon is of grave concern to the U.S. State Department. Ganelon presently has
strong political and military ties to the United States. However, the Socialist
party is widely expected to win the election, leading to fears that Ganelon will
soon break away from the pro-American bloc and adopt a nonaligned or openly
anti-American stance. Which of the following is an assumption made in the
(A) A Socialist party government in Ganelon is more likely to oppose the
United States than is a non-Socialist party government.
(B) The people of the United States recognize their nation’s interest in the
political stability of West Africa.
(C) A weakening of U.S. political ties with Ganelon could have serious
consequences for U.S. relations with other African nations.
(D) The Socialist party leaders in Ganelon believe that their nation’s interests
would best be served by an alliance with anti-American forces.
(E) The Socialist party will win the upcoming election in Ganelon.
13. No nation can long survive unless its people are united by a common
tongue. For proof, we need only consider Canada, which is being torn asunder by
conflicts between French-speaking Quebec and the other provinces, which are
dominated by English speakers. Which of the following, if true, most effectively
challenges the author’s conclusion?
(A) Conflicts over language have led to violent clashes between the
Basque-speaking minority in Spain and the Spanish-speaking majority.
(B) Proposals to declare English the official language of the United States have
met with resistance from members of Hispanic and other minority groups.
(C) Economic and political differences, along with linguistic ones, have
contributed to the provincial conflicts in Canada.
(D) The public of India, in existence sine 1948, has a population that speaks
hundreds of different, though related, languages.
(E) Switzerland has survived for nearly a thousand years as a home for speakers
of three different languages.
14. As an experienced labor organizer and the former head of one of the
nation’s most powerful labor unions, Grayson is an excellent choice to chair the
new council on business-labor relations. Which of the following, if true, would
most strengthen the conclusion above?
(A) The new council must have the support of the nation’s labor leaders if
it is to succeed.
(B) During his years as a labor leader, Grayson established a record of good
relations with business leaders.
(C) The chair of the new council must be a person who can communicate directly
with the leaders of the nation’s largest labor unions.
(D) Most of the other members of the new council will be representatives of
business management interests.
(E) An understanding of the needs and problems of labor is the only
qualification necessary for the job of chairing the new council.
15. In the effort to fire a Civil Service employee, his or her manager may
have to spend up to $100,000 of tax money. Since Civil Service employees know
how hard it is to fire them, they tend to loaf. This explains in large part why
the government is so inefficient. It can be properly inferred on the basis of
the statements above that the author believes which of the following?
I. Too much job security can have a negative influence on workers.
II. More government workers should be fired.
III. Most government workers are Civil Service employees.
(A) I only
(B) I and III only
(C) II only
(D) I, II, and III
(E) III only
16. Some commentators complain that a “litigation explosion” in the past
decade has led to unreasonably high costs for U.S. businesses by encouraging
more product liability suits against manufacturers. However, these complaints
are based mainly on myth. Statistics show that the number of successful product
liability suits has remained almost the same, and the average sum awarded in
damages has grown no faster than the inflation rate. Which of the following, if
true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) The number of unsuccessful suits has skyrocketed, imposing huge new
legal expenses on businesses.
(B) Several of the largest awards ever made in product liability cases occurred
within the last two years.
(C) The rise of the consumer movement has encouraged citizens to seek legal
redress for product flaws.
(D) Lawyers often undertake product liability cases on a contingency basis, so
their payment is based on the size of the damages awarded.
(E) Juries often award damages in product liability suits out of emotional
sympathy for an injured consumer.
17. Ronald: According to my analysis of the national economy, housing
prices should not increase during the next six months unless interest rates drop
significantly. Mark: I disagree. One year ago, when interest rates last fell
significantly, housing prices did not increase at all. It can be inferred from
the conversation above that Mark has interpreted Ronald’s statement to mean that
(A) housing prices will rise only if interest rates fall
(B) if interest rates fall, housing prices must rise
(C) interest rates and housing prices tend to rise and fall together
(D) interest rates are the only significant economic factor affecting housing
(E) interest rates are likely to fall significantly in the next six months
18. It’s time we stopped searching for new statistics to suggest that we
are not spending enough on education. In fact, education spending increased 30
percent overall during the last decade. Which of the following, if true, would
most weaken the argument above?
(A) Despite increased spending on education, enrollment in our elementary
and secondary schools declined about 4 percent during the last ten years.
(B) Our spending on gasoline increased more than 100 percent during the last
(C) When adjusted for inflation, our per-pupil expenditure on education this
year is less than it was ten years ago.
(D) Eleven other economically developed nations spend more on education than we
(E) The achievement levels of our students have been declining steadily since
1960, and the last decade produced no reversal in this trend.
19. The U.S. census is not perfect: thousands of Americans probably go
uncounted. However, the basic statistical portrait of the nation painted by the
census is accurate. Certainly some of the poor go uncounted, particularly the
homeless; but some of the rich go uncounted as well, because they are often
abroad or traveling between one residence and another. Which of the following is
an assumption on which the argument above depends?
(A) Both the rich and the poor have personal and economic reasons to avoid
being counted by the census.
(B) All Americans may reasonably be classified as either poor or rich.
(C) The percentage of poor Americans uncounted by the census is close to the
percentage of rich Americans uncounted.
(D) The number of homeless Americans is approximately equal to the number of
(E) The primary purpose of the census is to analyze the economic status of the
20. Which of the following best completes the passage below? In today’s
pluralistic society, textbook publishers find themselves in an increasingly
uncomfortable position. Since the schools are regarded as a repository of
society’s moral and cultural values, each group within society wishes to prevent
any material that offends its own values from appearing in textbooks. As a
result, stance on an issue is certain to run afoul of one group or another. And
since textbook publishers must rely on community goodwill to sell their books,
it is inevitable that______
(A) fewer and fewer publishers will be willing to enter the financially
uncertain textbook industry
(B) the ethical and moral content of textbooks will become increasingly neutral
(C) more and more pressure groups will arise that seek to influence the content
(D) the government will be forced to intervene in the increasingly rancorous
debate over the content of textbooks
(E) school boards, teachers, and principals will find it nearly impossible to
choose among the variety of textbooks being offered
Time 30 minutes 20 Questions
Questions 1-2 are based on the following.
We have heard a good deal in recent years about the declining importance of
the two major political parties. It is the mass media, we are told, that decide
the outcome of elections, not the power of the parties. But it is worth noting
that no independent or third-party candidate has won any important election in
recent years, and in the last nationwide campaign, the two major parties raised
and spent more money than ever before in support of their candidates and
platforms. It seems clear that reports of the imminent demise of the two-party
system are premature at best.
1. Which of the following is an assumption made in the argument above?
(A) The amount of money raised and spent by a political party is one valid
criterion for judging the influence of the party.
(B) A significant increase in the number of third-party candidates would be
evidence of a decline in the importance of the two major parties.
(C) The two-party system has contributed significantly to the stability of the
American political structure.
(D) The mass media tend to favor an independent or third-party candidate over a
candidate from one of the two major parties.
(E) The mass media are relatively unimportant in deciding the outcome of most
2. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument
(A) The percentage of voters registered as independents is higher today than
(B) In a recent presidential campaign, for the first time ever, an independent
candidate was invited to appear in a televised debate with the major-party
(C) Every current member of the U.S. Senate was elected as the candidate of one
of the two major parties.
(D) In a recent opinion poll, most voters stated that a candidate’s party
affiliation was an insignificant factor in judging his or her fitness for
(E) In the last four years, the outcome of several statewide elections has been
determined by the strength of the third-party vote.
3. Psychologists conducted a series of experiments to test the effect upon
schoolchildren of violence in films. In the first experiment, grammar school
children were shown a film that included scenes of a male teenager engaging in
violent acts against others, such as punching, pushing, and kicking. During a
free-play session following the film viewing, 42 percent of the children were
observed to engage in one or more violent acts similar to those in the film. In
a second experiment, a different group of children was shown a similar film
featuring a female teenager. Only 14 percent of the children were observed
behaving violently afterward. The psychologists concluded that children are more
likely to imitate violent behavior on film when a male model is shown than when
a female model is shown. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously
weaken the psychologists’ conclusion?
(A) In both experiments, the victims of the filmed violence included both
males and females.
(B) In the second experiment, 28 percent of the children appeared upset during
the viewing the violent film scenes.
(C) The first group included 19 male students and 20 female students; the second
group included 20 male students and 21 female students.
(D) In the first group, 58 percent of the children appeared bored during the
showing of the film, and 12 percent fell asleep.
(E) The percentage of children known to have discipline problems prior to the
experiment was greater in the first group than in the second group.
4. Mainline Airways was bought by its employees six years ago. Three years
ago, Mainline hired QualiCo Advertising Agency to handle its promotions and
advertising division. Today Mainline’s profits are over 20 percent higher than
they were five years ago and 10 percent higher than they were three years ago.
Employee ownership and a good advertising agency have combined to make Mainline
more profitable. Which of the following best describes the weak point in the
(A) It fails to establish a causal connection between the change in
ownership at Mainline Airways and the hiring of QualiCo, on the one hand, and
the rise in Mainliner's profits, on the other.
(B) It presents no evidence showing that employee-owned airlines are any more
profitable than other airlines.
(C) It assumes that the profits of Mainline Airways will continue to rise.
(D) It gives no exact figures for the current profits of Mainline Airways.
(E) It fails to explain how the profits of Mainline Airways are calculated.
5. At many colleges today, regulations have been imposed that forbid the
use in speech or print of language that “offends” or “insults” the members of
any group, especially women and racial, ethnic, and religious minorities.
Although these regulations are defended in the name of “democracy,” they
restrict freedom of speech and the press in a way that opposes the true spirit
of democracy. The argument above attempts to prove its case primarily by
(A) impugning the credentials of an opponent
(B) providing examples that support a theoretical principle
(C) taking advantage of inconsistencies in the definition of “democracy”
(D) revealing a contradiction in an opposing point of view
(E) appealing to the patriotic feelings of its audience
6. In 1980, a Danish ten-øre coin minted in 1747 was sold at auction for
$8,000. Eleanor Bixby owns another Danish ten-øre coin minted in 1747. When she
puts it on the market next week, it will fetch a price over $18,000. Which of
the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn above?
(A) Since 1980, the average price for rare coins has increased by over 150
(B) There are only four coins like the one in question in the entire world.
(C) Since 1980, the consumer price index has risen by over 150 percent.
(D) In 1986, a previously unknown cache of one hundred coins just like the one
in question was found.
(E) Thirty prominent, wealthy coin collectors are expected to bid for Bixby’s
7. Merco has been in business longer than Nolen. Inc, Olean Industries was
founded years before the Potter Company, and the Potter Company was started
years after the Quarles Corporation. Nolen, Inc., and the Quarles Corporation
were founded in the same year. If the information above is true, which of the
following must also be true?
(A) Olean Industries has been in business for more years than Merco.
(B) Olean Industries has been in business for more years than the Quarles
(C) Nolen, Inc., has not been in business for as many years as Olean Industries.
(D) Merco has been in business for more years than the Potter Company.
(E) Nolen, Inc., has not been in business for as many years as the Potter
8. Which of the following best completes the passage below? A primary
factor in perpetuating the low salaries of women workers has been their
segregation in the so-called pink-collar occupations, such as nursing, teaching,
library science, and secretarial work. Partly because these jobs have
traditionally been held by women, their salary levels have been depressed, and,
despite increased attempts to unionize these workers in recent years, their pay
continues to lag. Moreover, although a large percentage of women than ever
before are now entering and remaining in the job market, most continue to
gravitate toward the pink-collar fields, despite the lower salaries. It seems
clear, therefore, that if the average salaries of women workers are to approach
those of men, ______
(A) labor unions must redouble their efforts to improve the lot of working
(B) society’s perception of pink-collar jobs as less important and less
demanding than other jobs must be changed
(C) more men must be encouraged to enter fields traditionally occupied by women
(D) the number of jobs in the pink-collar fields relative to the size of the
work force as a whole must be markedly increased
(E) more women must enter occupations other than those traditionally reserved
9. Determining the authenticity of purported pre-Columbian artifacts is
never easy. Carbon-14 dating of these artifacts is often impossible due to
contamination by radioactive palladium (which occurs naturally in the soils of
Central and South America). However, historians and anthropologists have evolved
two reliable criteria, which, utilized in combination, have proven effective for
dating these artifacts. First, because authentic pre-Columbian artifacts
characteristically occur in a coarse, granular matrix that is shifted by major
earthquakes, they often exhibit the unique scratch patterns known as gridding.
In addition, true pre-Columbian artifacts show a darkening in surface color that
is caused by centuries of exposure to the minute amounts of magnesium in the
soil of the Americas. The criteria above would be LEAST useful in judging the
authenticity of which of the following?
(A) An ax head of black obsidian, unearthed from a kitchen midden
(B) A pottery bowl with a red ocher design, found in the ruins of a temple
(C) A set of gold ear weights, ornamented with jasper pendants
(D) A black feather cape from a king’s burial vault
(E) A multicolored woven sash found near the gravesite of a slave
Questions 10-11 are based on the following.
From time to time, the press indulges in outbursts of
indignation over the use of false or misleading information by the U.S.
government in support of its policies and programs. No one endorses needless
deception. But consider this historical analogy. It is known that Christopher
Columbus, on his first voyage to the New World, deliberately falsified the log
to show a shorter sailing distance for each day out than the ships had actually
traveled. In this way, Columbus was able to convince his skeptical sailors that
they had not sailed past the point at which they expected to find the shores of
India. Without this deception, Columbus’s sailors might well have mutinied, and
the New World might never have been discovered.
10. The author of the passage above assumes each of the
(A) Government deception of the press is often motivated by worthy
(B) Without government deception, popular support for worthwhile government
policies and programs might well fade.
(C) Attacks on the government by the press are often politically motivated.
(D) Deception for deception’s sake should not be condoned.
(E) A greater good may sometimes require acceptance of a lesser evil.
11. Which of the following is the main weakness of the
historical analogy drawn in the passage above?
(A) The sailors in Columbus’s crew never knew that they had been deceived,
while government deception is generally uncovered by the press.
(B) A ship’s log is a record intended mainly for use by the captain, while press
reports are generally disseminated for use by the public at large.
(C) The members of a ship’s crew are selected by the captain of the ship, while
those who work in the press are self-selected.
(D) The crew of a ship is responsible for the success of a voyage, while the
press is not responsible for the use others make of the factual information it
(E) In a democracy, the people are expected to participate in the nation’s
political decision making, while the members of a ship’s crew are expected
simply to obey the orders of the captain.
12. Which of the following best completes the passage below?
Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from the
Midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes at
least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the
great-great-grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never
been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left.
Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes
according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this
theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one
grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either
especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by
it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______
(A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule
(B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity
(C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or
(D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields
(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields
13. In general, a professional athlete is offered a
million-dollar contract only if he or she has just completed an unusually
successful season. However, a study shows that an athlete signing such a
contract usually suffers a decline in performance the following season. This
study supports the theory that a million-dollar contract tends to weaken an
athlete’s desire to excel by diminishing his or her economic incentive. Which of
the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn above?
(A) On the average, athletes whose contracts call for relatively small
salaries with possible bonuses for outstanding achievement perform better than
(B) Athletes are generally offered million-dollar contracts mainly because of
the increased ticket sales and other revenues they generate.
(C) Many professional athletes have careers marked by year-to-year fluctuations
in their overall levels of performance.
(D) On the average, higher-salaried athletes tend to have longer and more
successful professional careers than do lower-salaried athletes.
(E) Six of the ten leading batters in the National League this season signed
million-dollar contracts during the off-season.
14. Dr. A: The new influenza vaccine is useless at best and
possibly dangerous. I would never use it on a patient. Dr. B: But three studies
published in the Journal of Medical Associates have rated that vaccine as
unusually effective. Dr. A: The studies must have been faulty because the
vaccine is worthless. In which of the following is the reasoning most similar to
that of Dr. A?
(A) Three of my patients have been harmed by that vaccine during the past
three weeks, so the vaccine is unsafe.
(B) Jerrold Jersey recommends this milk, and I don’t trust Jerrold Jersey, so I
won’t buy this milk.
(C) Wingzz tennis balls perform best because they are far more effective than
any other tennis balls.
(D) I’m buying Vim Vitamins. Doctors recommend them more often than they
recommend any other vitamins, so Vim Vitamins must be good.
(E) Since University of Muldoon graduates score about 20 percent higher than
average on the GMAT, Sheila Lee, a University of Muldoon graduate, will score
about 20 percent higher than average when she takes the GMAT.
15. Bill: Smoke-detecting fire alarms can save lives. I
believe that every apartment in this city should be required by law to be
equipped with a smoke detector. Joe: I disagree with your proposal. Smoke
detectors are just as important for safety in private houses as they are in
apartment. From this exchange, it can be inferred that Joe has interpreted
Bill’s statement to mean that
(A) the city should be responsible for providing smoke detectors for
(B) residences outside the city should not be equipped with smoke detectors
(C) only apartments should be equipped with smoke detectors
(D) the risk of fire is not as great in private houses as it is in apartments
(E) the rate of death by fire is unusually high in the city in question
16. In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air
pollution reached unhealthful amounts and a smog alert was put into effect. In
early 1987, new air pollution control measures were enacted, but the city had
smog alerts on 31 days that year and on 39 days the following year. In 1989,
however, the number of smog alerts in Los Diablos dropped to sixteen. The main
air pollutants in Los Diablos are ozone and carbon monoxide, and since 1986 the
levels of both have been monitored by gas spectrography. Which of the following
statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAST helpful in explaining the
air pollution levels in Los Diablos between 1986 and 1989?
(A) The 1987 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Diablos were put
into effect in November of 1988.
(B) In December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was
(C) In February of 1989, the Pollution Control Board of Los Diablos revised the
scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful.
(D) In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large campaign
donations from local industries and to have exempted those same industries from
air pollution control measures.
(E) Excess ozone and carbon monoxide require a minimum of two years to break
down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area.
17. In a marketing study, consumers were given two unlabeled
cartons of laundry detergent. One carton was bright green and yellow; the other
was drab brown and gray. After using the detergent in the two cartons for one
month, 83 percent of the consumers in the study reported that the detergent in
the bright green and yellow carton cleaned better. This study shows that
packaging has a significant impact on consumers’ judgment of the effectiveness
of a laundry detergent. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen
the conclusion drawn in the marketing study?
(A) The detergent in the bright carton contained bleach crystals; the
detergent in the drab carton did not.
(B) The detergents in the two cartons were the same.
(C) The detergents in the two cartons were different, but they had both been
(D) The detergent in the drab carton was a popular name brand; the detergent in
the bright carton was generic.
(E) The detergent in the drab carton was generic; the detergent in the bright
carton was a popular name brand.
18. Don’s, a chain of supermarkets, has entered into an
agreement in which Rose Computers will sell Don’s an unlimited number of its
least expensive PC’s at one-fourth the regular wholesale price. In return, Don’s
has agreed to purchase all of its scanners and other electronic
information-processing equipment from Rose or from Omicron, Rose Computers’
parent company, for the next ten years. Don’s will offer a Rose PC free to any
school that turns in Don’s register receipts totaling $100,000 within the next
six months. The vice-president in charge of advertising for Don’s expects that
the computer giveaway will obviate the need for a massive new advertising
campaign for the next six months and that Don’s can make up the expenditures for
the PC’s by writing them off its income taxes as charitable donations. The plans
formulated by Don’s assume each of the following EXCEPT:
(A) The prices that Rose or Omicron charges Don’s for information-processing
equipment over the next ten years will be lower than those charged by other
(B) The tax laws will not be changed to exclude or lessen the value of
charitable donations as tax write-offs.
(C) Schools will be sufficiently attracted by Don’s computer giveaway offer that
teachers will urge students to shop at Don’s.
(D) Rose will be able to supply Don’s with a sufficient number of PC’s to meet
the demand generated by schools that collect Don’s receipts totaling $100,000.
(E) The effect of the computer giveaway offer on Don’s business will be
comparable to that of a major advertising campaign.
19. Manufacturers of household appliances are still urging
the public to purchase food processors. The various manufacturers’
advertisements all point out that the prices of these appliances are now lower
than ever and that each food processor comes with a lifetime service warranty.
In addition, many manufacturers offer sizable rebates to customers who purchase
food processors within a given time period. With these incentives, the
advertisements contend, people can hardly afford not to purchase food
processors. Which answer choice is a logically prior issue that the
manufacturers’ advertisements fail to address?
(A) Whether the cost of repairs to the food processors over the years will
cancel out the savings currently being offered
(B) Whether potential customers have enough uses for food processors to justify
(C) Whether the heads of the companies manufacturing food processors own food
(D) Whether the food processors currently being advertised will be outdated
within the next five years
(E) Whether accessories and replacement parts will be readily available at
20. Since the invention of digital readout, machine designers
have rushed to replace conventional dials and gauges with digital units. Yet the
digital gauge has drawbacks in some situations. Since it presents an exact
numeric value, it must be decoded and analyzed by a human operator; its meaning
cannot be read in an instantaneous scanning. An analog dial or gauge can be
marked with red to alert the operator when a value is entering a danger zone; a
digital gauge cannot. And it is difficult to tell whether a digital readout is
increasing or decreasing over time, while the up or down movement of a pointer
on an analog gauge can be quickly and easily observed. The author of the passage
above would probably recommend the use of digital gauge in cases when
I. warning of a sudden rise or fall in value is needed
II. an operator must read and interpret several gauges within a few seconds
III. a precise numeric value is essential
(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
Time 30 minutes 20 Questions
1. Contrary to the statements of labor leaders, the central economic
problem facing America today is not the distribution of wealth. It is
productivity. With the productivity of U.S. industry stagnant, or even declining
slightly, the economic pie is no longer growing. Labor leaders, of course, point
to what they consider an unfair distribution of the slices of pie to justify
their demands for further increases in wages and benefits. And in the past, when
the pie was still growing, management could afford to acquiesce. No longer.
Until productivity resumes its growth, there can be no justification for further
increases in the compensation of workers. Which of the following statements by a
labor leader focuses on the logical weakness in the argument above?
(A) Although the economic pie is no longer growing, the portion of the pie
allocated to American workers remains unjustly small.
(B) If management fails to accommodate the demands of workers, labor leaders
will be forced to call strikes that will cripple the operation of industry.
(C) Although productivity is stagnant, the U.S. population is growing, so that
the absolute size of the economic pie continues to grow as well.
(D) As a labor leader, I can be concerned only with the needs of working people,
not with the problems faced by management.
(E) The stagnation of U.S. industry has been caused largely by factors—such as
foreign competition—beyond the control of American workers.
2. Freud’s theories of the workings of the mind, while brilliant for their
day, were formulated before most of this century’s great advances in
neurophysiology and biochemistry. Today, we have a far deeper understanding of
the biological components of thought, emotion, and behavior than was dreamed of
eighty years ago. It would be foolish to continue parroting Freud’s
psychological theories as if these advances had never occurred. It can be
inferred from the passage above that the author would be most likely to favor
(A) the abandonment of most of Freud’s theories
(B) a greater reliance on biological rather than psychological explanations of
(C) a critical reexamination of Freud’s place in the history of psychology
(D) a reexamination of Freud’s theories in the light of contemporary biology
(E) increased financial support for studies in neurophysiology and biochemistry
3. To avoid a hostile takeover attempt, the board of directors of Wellco,
Inc., a provider of life and health insurance, planned to take out large loans
and use them to purchase a publishing company, a chocolate factory, and a
nationwide chain of movie theaters. The directors anticipated that these
purchase initially would plunge the corporation deep into debt, rendering it
unattractive to those who wanted to take it over, but that steadily rising
insurance rates would allow the company to pay off the debt within five years.
Meanwhile, revenues from the three new businesses would enable the corporation
as a whole to continue to meet its increased operating expenses. Ultimately,
according o the directors’ plan, the diversification would strengthen the
corporation by varying the sources and schedules of its annual revenues. Which
of the following, assuming that all are equally possible, would most enhance the
chances of the plan’s success?
(A) A widespread drought decreases the availability of cacao beans, from
which chocolate is manufacture, diving up chocolate prices worldwide.
(B) New government regulations require a 30 percent across-the-board rate
rollback of all insurance companies, to begin immediately and to be completed
(C) Congress enacts a statute, effective after six months, making it illegal for
any parent not to carry health insurance coverage for his or her child.
(D) Large-screen televisions drop dramatically in price due to surprise
alterations in trade barriers with Japan; movie theater attendance dwindles as a
(E) A new, inexpensive process is discovered for making paper pulp, and paper
prices fall to 60 percent of their former level.
4. In 1981, for the first time in over two decades, the average scores of
high school students on standardized math and English tests did not decline.
During the same year, millions of American students enjoyed their first exposure
to the new world of the microcomputer, whether in schools, video arcades, or
other settings. The conclusion is clear: far from stultifying the intellectual
capacities of students, exposure to computers can actually enhance them. The
most serious weakness of the argument above is its failure to
(A) discuss the underlying causes of the twenty-year decline in students’
(B) cite specific figures documenting the increases in test scores
(C) distinguish among the various types of computer being used by high school
(D) define the intellectual capacities tested by the standardized math and
English tests referred to
(E) explain exactly how high school students’ abilities on math and English
tests could have been enhanced by exposure to computers
Questions 5-6 are based on the following.
Although its purpose is laudable, the exclusionary rule, which forbids a
court to consider evidence seized in violation of the defendant’s constitutional
rights, has unduly hampered law-enforcement efforts. Even when the rights
violation was a minor or purely technical one, turning on a detail of procedure
rather than on the abrogation of some fundamental liberty, and even when it has
been clear that the police officers were acting in good faith, the evidence
obtained has been considered tainted under this rule and may not even by
introduced. In consequence, defendants who were undoubtedly guilty have been set
free, perhaps to steal, rape, or murder again.
5. The author of the passage above assumes all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) The constitutional rights of criminal defendants should be protected.
(B) Most cases in which the exclusionary rule has been invoked have involved
purely technical violations of constitutional principles.
(C) The number of cases whose outcome has been affected by the exclusionary rule
(D) Some of the defendants set free under the exclusionary rule have been guilty
of serious criminal offenses.
(E) Merely technical violations of the rules concerning evidence should be
treated differently from deliberate assaults upon human rights.
6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most likely
endorse which of the following proposals?
(A) Change of the exclusionary rule to admit evidence obtained by police
officers acting in good faith
(B) A constitutional amendment curtailing some of the protections traditionally
afforded those accused of a crime
(C) A statute limiting the application of the exclusionary rule to cases
involving minor criminal offenses
(D) Change of the exclusionary rule to allow any evidence, no matter how
obtained, to be introduced in court
(E) A constitutional amendment allowing police officers to obtain vital evidence
by any means necessary when in pursuit of a known criminal
7. The postal service is badly mismanaged. Forty years ago, first-class
letter delivery cost only three cents. Since then, the price has increased
nearly tenfold, with an actual decrease in the speed and reliability of service.
Each of the following statements, if true, would tend to weaken the argument
(A) The volume of mail handled by the postal service has increased
dramatically over the last forty years.
(B) Unprecedented increases in the cost of fuel for trucks and planes have put
severe upward pressures on postal delivery costs.
(C) Private delivery services usually charge more than does the postal service
for comparable delivery charges.
(D) The average delivery time for a first-class letter four decades ago was
actually slightly longer than it is today.
(E) The average level of consumer prices overall has increased more than 300
percent over the last forty years.
8. When the government of a nation announced recently that a leader of the
nation’s political opposition had died of a mysterious illness in prison, few
seasoned observers of the regime were surprised. As the police captain in an old
movie remarked when asked about the condition of a prisoner, “We’re trying to
decide whether he committed suicide or died trying to escape.” The statements
above invite which of the following conclusions?
(A) The opposition leader was probably killed trying to escape from prison.
(B) The opposition leader may not be dead at all.
(C) It is unlikely that the head of the regime knows the true cause of the
opposition leader’s death.
(D) The opposition leader probably killed himself.
(E) The regime very likely was responsible for the death of the opposition
Questions 9-10 are based on the following.
In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of
the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours.
Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many
people assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history, and that,
therefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very
survival. We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study
of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of
central Africa, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting,
gathering, and tending to other economic necessities. The rest of their time is
spent as they choose. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar
to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the
shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing
process of industrialization.
9. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best
supported by the passage above?
(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than
those in nonindustrialized societies.
(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the
early stages of industrialization.
(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and
the benefits of increased leisure.
(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will
eventually be shortened.
(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in
leisure rather than work.
10. Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the
argument made in the passage above?
(A) In recent decades, the economy of the Mbuti has been markedly affected
by the encroachment of modern civilization.
(B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans.
(C) The Mbuti have no words in their language to express the distinction between
work activities and leisure activities.
(D) The workday of a European peasant in medieval times averaged between eleven
and fifteen hours.
(E) The members of the Shaklik tribe in central Asia have an average workday of
ten to twelve hours.
11. Gloria: Those who advocate tuition tax credits for parents whose
children attend private schools maintain that people making no use of a
government service should not be forced to pay for it. Yet those who choose to
buy bottled water rather than drink water from the local supply are not
therefore exempt from paying taxes to maintain the local water supply. Roger:
Your argument is illogical. Children are required by law to attend school. Since
school attendance is a matter not of choice, but of legal requirement, it is
unfair for the government to force some parents to pay for it twice. Which of
the following responses by Gloria would best refute Roger’s charge that her
argument is illogical?
(A) Although drinking water is not required by law, it is necessary for all
people, and therefore my analogy is appropriate.
(B) Those who can afford the tuition at a high-priced private school can well
bear the same tax burden as those whose children attend public schools.
(C) If tuition tax credits are granted, the tax burden on parents who choose
public schools will rise to an intolerable level.
(D) The law does not say that parents must send their children to private
schools, only that the children must attend some kind of school, whether public
(E) Both bottled water and private schools are luxury items, and it is unfair
that some citizens should be able to afford them while others cannot.
Questions 12-13 are based on the following.
Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the level of
industrial pollutants in the air has fallen by an average of 18 percent. This
suggests that the restrictions on industry embodied in the act have worked
effectively. However, during the same period the state has also suffered through
a period of economic decline. The number of businesses in the state has fallen
by 10 percent, and the number of workers employed has fallen by 12 percent. It
is probable that the business decline, rather than the regulations in the act,
is responsible for at least half of the decline in the pollution.
12. Which of following is an assumption made in the passage above?
(A) Most businesses in the state have obeyed the regulations embodied in the
Clean Air Act.
(B) The economic decline of the state can be attributed, in part, to the effects
of the Clean Air Act.
(C) The amount of air pollution in a given area is likely to be proportional to
the number of businesses and workers active in that area.
(D) The restrictions on business activity in other states are less stringent
than are those embodied in the Clean Air Act.
(E) The Clean Air Act has been only very slightly successful in achieving the
goal of reduced air pollution.
13. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the
conclusion drawn in the passage above?
(A) During the last ten years, economic conditions in the nation as a whole
have been worse than those within the state.
(B) Amendments to the Clean Air Act that were enacted six years ago have
substantially strengthened its restrictions on industrial air pollution.
(C) Of the businesses that ceased operating in the state during the last ten
years, only 5 percent were engaged in air-polluting industries.
(D) Several large corporations left the state during the last ten years partly
in order to avoid compliance with the Clean Air Act.
(E) Due to its small budget, the state office charged with enforcement of the
Clean Air Act has prosecuted only two violators of the law since its passage.
14. A nutritionist studying the effects of massive doses of vitamin C
found that of a group of 600 people who regularly took 1,500 mg of vitamin C
daily for a year, fewer than 9 percent suffered serious cases of flu; of a group
of 600 people who took 250 mg of vitamin C (the standard recommended daily
allowance) daily for a year, 34 percent suffered at least one serious case of
flu; and of a group of 600 people who took no vitamin C for a year (other than
that found in the foods in a balanced diet), 32 percent suffered at least one
serious case of flu. Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the
(A) The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing serious cases of flu
increases in direct proportion to the amount of vitamin C taken.
(B) Vitamin C is helpful in preventing disease.
(C) Doses of vitamin C that exceed the standard recommended daily allowance by
500 percent will reduce the incidence of serious cases of flu by 25 percent.
(D) Massive doses of vitamin C can help to prevent serious case of flu.
(E) A balanced diet contains less than 250 mg of vitamin C.
15. Susan: Those who oppose experimentation on animals do not properly
value the preservation of human life. Although animal suffering is unfortunate,
it is justifiable if it can lead to cures for human ailments. Melvin: But much
animal experimentation involves testing of ordinary consumer products such as
soaps, dyes, and cosmetics. Susan: These experiments are justifiable on the same
grounds, since cleanliness, convenience, and beauty are worthwhile human values
deserving of support. Which of the following is the best statement of the
logical flaw in Susan’s argument?
(A) Her claim that animal experimentation is justifiable if it supports
human values contradicts her claim that such experimentation is justifiable only
if it leads to cures for human ailments.
(B) She places a higher value on human cleanliness, convenience, and beauty than
she does on the preservation of animal life.
(C) She uses the word “value” in two different senses.
(D) She assumes that all ordinary consumer products aid in the preservation of
(E) She fails to show how mere support for human values actually preserves human
16. Which of the following best completes the passage below? As long as
savings deposits are insured by the government, depositors will have no
incentive to evaluate the financial strength of a savings bank. Yield alone will
influence their choice of bank. To attract deposits, banks will be forced to
offer the highest possible interest rates. And since paying higher rates
inevitably strains the financial strength of a bank, ______
(A) the government will be forced o impose limitations on interest rates
(B) deposit insurance will ultimately lead to the financial weakening of many
(C) savers will be forced to choose between deposit insurance and higher
(D) deposits will tend to go to the banks with the greatest financial strength
(E) bank profits will tend to rise to ever-higher levels
17. Every painting hanging in the Hoular Gallery is by a French painter.
No painting in the Hoular Gallery is by a Vorticist. Only Vorticists use acrylic
monochromes in their works. If the information above is true, which of the
following must also be true?
(A) No French painters are Vorticists.
(B) All Vorticists use acrylic monochromes in their works.
(C) Some French painters do not use acrylic monochromes in their works.
(D) No French painters use acrylic monochromes in their works.
(E) All French painters who use acrylics use acrylic monochromes in their works.
18. We commonly speak of aesthetic judgments as subjective, and in the
short term they are, since critics often disagree about the value of a
particular contemporary work of art. But over time, the subjective element
disappears. When works of art have continued to delight audiences for centuries,
as have the paintings of Michelangelo, the music of Bach, and the plays of
Shakespeare, we can objectively call them great. The statements above best
support which of the following conclusions?
(A) When Michelangelo, Bach, and Shakespeare were alive, critics disagreed
about the value of their work.
(B) The value of a contemporary work of art cannot be objectively measured.
(C) The reputation of a work of art often fluctuates greatly from one generation
to the next.
(D) The mere fact that a work of art has endured for centuries does not
establish its greatness.
(E) If critics agree about the value of a particular cotemporary work of art,
then the work can objectively be called great.
19. Since the 55-mile-per-hour speed limit was mandated on our highways,
both money and human lives have been saved. All of the following, if true, would
strengthen the claim above EXCEPT:
(A) Most highway users find that travel times are not appreciably lengthened
by the 55-mile-per-hour speed limit.
(B) Highway driving at 55 miles per hour or less is more fuel-efficient than
(C) Nearly all highway safety experts agree that more accidents occur at speeds
over 55 miles per hour than at lower speeds.
(D) The percentage of fatalities occurring in highway accidents at speeds
greater than 55 miles per hour is higher than that for low-speed accidents.
(E) Automobiles last longer and require fewer repairs when driven at
consistently lower speeds.
20. The city council will certainly vote to approve the new downtown
redevelopment plan, despite the objections of environmentalists. After all, most
of the campaign contributions received by members of the city council come from
real estate development firms, which stand to benefit from the plan. Which of
the following statements, if true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) Several members of the city council receive sizable campaign
contributions from environmental lobbying groups.
(B) Members of the city council are required to report the size and source of
each campaign contribution they receive.
(C) Not every real estate development firm in the city will be able to
participate in, and profit from, the new downtown redevelopment plan.
(D) The members of the city council have often voted in ways that are opposed to
the interests of their campaign contributors.
(E) Some environmentalists have stated that the new downtown redevelopment plan
might be environmentally sound if certain minor modifications are