30 Minutes 20 Questions
1. The school board has determined that it is necessary to reduce the
number of teachers on the staff. Rather than deciding which teachers will be
laid off on the basis of seniority, the school board plans to lay off the least
effective teachers first. The school board’s plan assumes that
(A) there is a way of determining the effectiveness of teachers
(B) what one individual defines as effective teaching will not be defined as
effective teaching by another individual
(C) those with the most experience teaching are the best teachers
(D) those teachers who are paid the most are generally the most qualified
(E) some teachers will be more effective working with some students than with
2. Since applied scientific research is required for technological
advancement, many have rightly urged an increased emphasis in universities on
applied research. But we must not give too little attention to basic research,
even though it may have no foreseeable application, for tomorrow’s applied
research will depend on the basic research of today. If the statements above are
true, which of the following can be most reliably inferred?
(A) If future technological advancement is desired, basic research should
receive greater emphasis than applied research.
(B) If basic research is valued in universities, applied research should be
given less emphasis than it currently has.
(C) If future technological advancement is desired, research should be limited
to that with some foreseeable application.
(D) If too little attention is given to basic research today, future
technological advancement will be jeopardized.
(E) If technological advancement is given insufficient emphasis, basic research
will also receive too little attention.
3. The First Banking Group’s decision to invest in an electronic network
for transferring funds was based on a cost advantage over a nonelectronic system
of about ten dollars per transaction in using an electronic system. Executives
reasoned further that the system would give them an advantage over competitors.
Which of the following, if it is a realistic possibility, most seriously weakens
the executives’ projection of an advantage over competitors?
(A) The cost advantage of using the electronic system will not increase
sufficiently to match the pace of inflation.
(B) Competitors will for the same reasons install electronic systems, and the
resulting overcapacity will lead to mutually damaging price wars.
(C) The electronic system will provide a means for faster transfer of funds, if
the First Banking Group wishes to provide faster transfer to its customers.
(D) Large banks from outside the area served by the First Banking Group have
recently established branches in that area as competitors to the First Banking
(E) Equipment used in the electronic network for transferring funds will be
compatible with equipment used in other such networks.
4. Which of the following best completes the argument below? One effect of
the introduction of the electric refrigerator was a collapse in the market for
ice. Formerly householders had bought ice to keep their iceboxes cool and the
food stored in the iceboxes fresh. Now the iceboxes cool themselves. Similarly,
the introduction of crops genetically engineered to be resistant to pests
(A) increase the size of crop harvests
(B) increase the cost of seeds
(C) reduce demand for chemical pesticides
(D) reduce the value of farmland
(E) reduce the number of farmers keeping livestock
5. In 1985 the city’s Fine Arts Museum sold 30,000 single-entry tickets.
In 1986 the city’s Folk Arts and Interior Design museums opened, and these three
museums together sold over 80,000 such tickets that year. These museums were
worth the cost, since more than twice as many citizens are now enjoying the
arts. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the author’s
assertion that more than twice as many citizens are now enjoying the arts?
(A) Most visitors to one museum also visit the other two.
(B) The cost of building the museums will not be covered by revenues generated
by the sale of museum tickets.
(C) As the two new museums become better known, even more citizens will visit
(D) The city’s Fine Arts Museum did not experience a decrease in single-entry
tickets sold in 1986.
(E) Fewer museum entry tickets were sold in 1986 than the museum planners had
hoped to sell.
6. F: We ought not to test the safety of new drugs on sentient animals,
such as dogs and rabbits. Our benefit means their pain, and they are equal to us
in the capacity to feel pain. G: We must carry out such tests; otherwise, we
would irresponsibly sacrifice the human lives that could have been saved by the
drugs. Which of the following, if true, is the best objection that could be made
from F’s point of view to counter G’s point?
(A) Even though it is not necessary for people to use cosmetics, cosmetics
are also being tested on sentient animals.
(B) Medical science already has at its disposal a great number of drugs and
other treatments for serious illnesses.
(C) It is not possible to obtain scientifically adequate results by testing
drugs in the test tube, without making tests on living tissue.
(D) Some of the drugs to be tested would save human beings from great pain.
(E) Many tests now performed on sentient animals can be performed equally well
on fertilized chicken eggs that are at a very early stage of development.
7. Which of the following best completes the passage below? The
unemployment rate in the United States fell from 7.5 percent in 1981 to 6.9
percent in 1986. It cannot, however, be properly concluded from these statistics
that the number of unemployed in 1986 was lower than it had been in 1981
(A) help-wanted advertisements increased between 1981 and 1986
(B) many of the high-paying industrial jobs available in 1981 were replaced by
low-wage service jobs in 1986, resulting in displacements of hundreds of
(C) in some midwestern industrial states, the unemployment rate was much higher
in 1986 than it had been in 1981
(D) the total available work force, including those with and without employment,
increased between 1981 and 1986